GATE Simulation of the Biograph 2 PET/CT Scanner
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GATE is an advanced open source software dedicated to numerical simulations in medical imaging and radiotherapy. It currently supports simulations of Emission Tomography (Positron Emission Tomography PET and Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography -SPECT), Computed Tomography (CT) and Radiotherapy experiments. The work focused on the commercial Biograph 6 PET/CT scanner. Study targeted to (a) port previously developed and validated GATE codes to the currently available stable version of GATE of v.6.1, (b) evaluate model's validity detecting sources of bias (c) investigate differentiations imposed if different sources were employed, namely F-18 (Fluorine-18), O-15 (Oxygen-15) and C-11 (Carbon-11). The geometry of the system components was described in GATE, including detector ring, crystal blocks, PMTs etc. The energy and spatial resolution of the scanner as given by the manufacturers were taken into account. The GATE results were compared to directly derived experimental data obtained according to the NEMA NU-2-2001 protocol, Analysis was limited to scatter fraction, count looses and randoms. Good agreement was achieved between experimental and GATE results. Significant sources of bias were the (a) dead time value employed, (b) it's mode (paralysablenonparalysable), (c) modelled activity (d) modelled source, (e) further dead time values adopted in additionally included GATE modules.